A quintessential example of a cultural clash over math education in US schools, I would say, is the entire Math Wars, an ongoing struggle over standards and pedagogy in K-12 schools. It is a struggle of curriculum reformers trying to bring research-based innovations of mathematics thinking, learning, and teaching over the last three decades into schools facing opposition from some parents and mathematicians who prefer a traditionalist approach relying on outdated (or, in some cases, just frankly unscientific) understandings of a whole host of issues surrounding education.
For a thorough introduction, I recommend Schoenfeld's (2004) writing on the subject. It's 10 years old, and some people speak about it as though it is in the past (many people have tried to declare "math wars" as over) but I think some of the arguments over the Common Core State Standards have made it clear just how much Math Wars are still a reality.
The question as titled and asked is a little muddled (education is missing from the wording of the question in yellow, though prominent in the title). This addresses the (I think) intended question of an example of culture placing a restriction on mathematics education. In short: research findings conflict with traditional cultural values, resulting in some people rejecting the science and adhering to tradition.
Schoenfeld, A. H. (2004). The Math Wars. Educational Policy, 18(1), 253–286. doi:10.1177/0895904803260042