This question is about references in current best practices in teaching math to future elementary teachers at a university level. I am asking it because I do not see any question so far on this site regarding this specific type of course (other than a textbook request, here), and I think it is worth discussion.
These courses are generally focused on helping future elementary teachers understand CCSS (Common Core) language (edit: or other equivalent standards-basedf language) and rephrase it into child-friendly language, helping them understand arithmetic through arithmetic in other bases and understand and be able to explain visual models of arithmetic, including understanding and identifying mistakes that people can make when using these models. The general focus tends to be on mastery of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, divisibility rules, fractions, negative numbers, geometry, proportional reasoning, and equations, among other things in the same vein.
Arithmetic in alternate bases is a common part of these courses. While I strongly believe that this helps future elementary teachers conceptualize the learning of mathematics, I have noted (while tutoring students taking similar courses) that this message does not get through very clearly. So, my question is truly about "best practices" in this kind of course, but for clarity about what I mean by "best practices" I pose the following more specific questions, all of which are within my scope of asking about "best practices":
What are some references regarding good pedagogical approaches in this type of course? For example, I would lean to, but do not currently have evidence for:
- De-emphasis of lecturing in favor of activity-based, constructivist approach: Students already "know" the material (though I recognize that they often do not quite "know" it, but feel like they do), and are asked to make sense of it in a deeper way, and so should rarely need to be 'told' material (there are arguments against ever lecturing in any math class, but that is a different question entirely)
- Use of different bases to help students understand the underlying structure of their number systems instead of rote
What are additional types of exercises which help elementary teachers process this information and be prepared to use it when they teach mathematics to children?
- What do elementary teachers really need to know, vs. simply be able to do? What evidence can I provide them that they need to know it rather than simply be able to do it?
Clarification: This is NOT about teaching a "methods" course: That is for experienced elementary educators to teach. This is instead about teaching a math course TO elementary teachers, where the elementary teachers are expected to have a firm grasp on the basics before they take their "methods" course on how to teach the basics.