Expanding upon my comments to the question, now that I have time to:
All of the courses you listed as looking at are ones that I think every high school math teacher should take and be exposed to. Calculus and Statistics are also courses that you may very well be expected to teach at the high school level, so these make the most sense of your list to take first. Elements of Linear Algebra, Mathematical Modeling, College Geometry, and Discrete Math may all appear in high school courses as well, though likely not in their entirety.
Down the line, I would encourage you to take courses in Number Theory and Group Theory, since I think they provide excellent insights into high school math content and that even a cursory knowledge of those will help an Algebra teacher understand the content more deeply. Similarly, Real Analysis would make sense after your completed your Calculus sequence. It is also typical in some high schools in New York State to have math teachers fill in for other STEM courses in the building when necessitated. You may want to take other math adjacent courses like Computer Science, Accounting, or another hard science you're interested in. In particular, if I were in your position, I'd look to take a few Computer Sciences classes, since I think we're going to start seeing more and more of these classes offered at the secondary level.
If you are firmly planning on becoming a secondary math teacher, then you might want to get a jump start on the masters degree that will be required if you plan on teaching in New York State. A pedagogy or psychology class, whether it was for secondary mathematics or not, would be valuable I would think.
Looking at the linked material for the competency test, it seems to me to be very much aligned to the Common Core State Standards -- the competencies listed on page three are almost exactly the same. Aside from the Calculus and Pedagogical Content Knowledge sections, I would be inclined to predict that you know most of the other content already from your high school education if you went to high school in New York State and took the three Regents and passed with decent scores. While I myself have not taken the Certification Exam in NYS, I know many people who have who have done so with little more classroom math exposure beyond high school math. The competency test, in general, is not something that I think you should be worried about if you are considering the classes you have listed; it is perhaps the easiest part of gaining your teaching certification in NYS.
If there are courses or professors that you're interested in at your school, that might drive your choices. If you take a course with a teacher you admire, then you may decide to take more courses with that person. Follow your interests and pursue your passions, but don't get so focused that you ignore opportunities to take other classes that might expand your thinking. I think it's great that you have the idea that you want to be a high school math teacher, but lots of people also change their minds while in college because of the classes they take and the people they encounter, and that's perfectly okay too.