Warning. Biologist is answering.
Our instructors are often in very large, very sleepy lecture halls. Clickers provide a stimulus for student discussion and trigger learning through testing effects.
The instructor is about to begin a new subject. She opens a clicker
question that contains a common misconception as one of the answer
options. Students answer incorrectly. The instructor can now address
the misconception and correct it. Students are given additional, new
problems to answer, either individually or in groups, and then click
The instructor asks students to rank a list of procedures, processes, steps in order. Can be done individually, and then in groups.
If the instructor has assigned pre-class reading, students can take a 5-minute clicker quiz when they walk in to reinforce the assignment and remind them that the instructor will not be covering the basics.
Newer, web-based audience response systems can require students to draw a curve on a graph or type in a short answer. Some (Learning Catalytics) can determine which students answered correctly or incorrectly, and tell Marcos to "turn to Jane on your left and discuss your answer," maximizing student teaching.
Attached is an example of the research on the subject in biology:
Smith, M. K., Wood, W. B., Krauter, K., & Knight, J. K. (2011). Combining peer discussion with instructor explanation increases student learning from in-class concept questions. CBE-Life Sciences Education, 10(1), 55-63.