I am mildly interested in research on mathematics education in the Waldorf/Steiner educational context, primarily in the upper secondary school setting, but not exclusively.

Information about Waldorf/Steiner:

Even if this is a niche, given the breadth of research in mathematics education, I am somewhat surprised by how little can be found on this via google search. I presume one just needs to know where to look. My questions:

What is the state of the art? What exactly has been studied? How active is the research? What are the relevant journals? etc.

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    $\begingroup$ Welcome to matheducators.SE. Please provide a link and some description so we don't have to google to find out what this is. $\endgroup$
    – user507
    Jul 19, 2021 at 20:19
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    $\begingroup$ Am I wrong in thinking that someone who is able to answer this question would not need a link and some description to find out what this is? $\endgroup$ Jul 19, 2021 at 20:57
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    $\begingroup$ I assume the OP is referring to this: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waldorf_education $\endgroup$ Jul 20, 2021 at 2:17
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    $\begingroup$ @DamianReding: True, but for the rest of us it would be useful to have this information. And it might jog someone's memory. $\endgroup$
    – J W
    Jul 20, 2021 at 9:34
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    $\begingroup$ @DamianReding: When someone asks for clarification of a question on SE, the thing to do is to edit the question, not answer in comments. I'll edit the question to provide the links. $\endgroup$
    – user507
    Jul 21, 2021 at 14:27

1 Answer 1


Three references.

Wikipedia has an article, Studies of Waldorf education, which cites various publications, not, however, specifically focused on mathematics education. [Not the same Wikipedia article to which @JoelReyesNoche refers.]

For example,

(1) A 2012 study compared the reading and math standardized test scores obtained in public Waldorf schools in the United States with scores for their districts as a whole, as well as scores in matched comparison schools. Public Waldorf school scores were lower than those of regular public schools in earlier grades (second and third), but higher in seventh and eighth grade.

Abigail L. Larrison; Alan J. Daly; Carol VanVooren (October 5, 2012). "Twenty Years and Counting: A Look at Waldorf in the Public Sector Using Online Sources". Current Issues in Education. 15 (3).

Another reference from the same Wikipedia article:

(2) A 2009 PISA study found that, compared to state school students, European Waldorf students are significantly more capable in the sciences, slightly less capable in mathematics; and comparable in reading ability.

(PISA = Programme for International Student Assessment)

And here is statement from a particular US Waldorf school:

(3) WSL’s math curriculum largely mirrors the Massachusetts state standards; however, the range of teaching techniques is broader.


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