Can anyone recommend good and didactic references that delve into the dualism between deterministic and stochastic phenomena? Ideally, I'm seeking materials that provide a conceptual explanation along with numerous examples suitable for high school students.

to define what is a random phenomena is not easy as point out this article What Is a Random Sequence?by Sérgio B. Volchan

also, see these videos : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9rIy0xY99a0 and https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sMb00lz-IfE

  • $\begingroup$ I’m voting to close this question because asking for resources is not a valid kind of question for this site. $\endgroup$
    – Dominique
    Sep 14, 2023 at 8:45
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    $\begingroup$ @Dominique Why??? It seems to be directly pertinent to math. education and there are several requests of that type on the site, the most prominent (but by no means unique) being matheducators.stackexchange.com/questions/10636/… $\endgroup$
    – fedja
    Sep 14, 2023 at 14:04
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    $\begingroup$ @Dominique, I think as many resources an educator have. a better educator he/she can be. please do not close my question. $\endgroup$ Sep 14, 2023 at 14:32

1 Answer 1


There was a question "is throwing dice a deterministic or stochastic process" on Physics.SE a while back, and I think this answer is insightful and accessible enough to spur a good discussion amongst a class of high schoolers who have some baseline amount of interest in the distinction.

An excerpt:

Throwing dice is just throwing dice. That's all. It's not stochastic, nor deterministic. It's just throwing dice.

Now we model throwing dice as a process, and that's where the stochastic or deterministic side starts to play in. It is the process that is stochastic or deterministic, not the throwing of the dice. It's how we think about the throwing of dice that can be stochastic or deterministic.

... continued here

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    $\begingroup$ Maybe flippant: to the degree that a process is not deterministic, it is stochastic. $\endgroup$
    – ryang
    Sep 15, 2023 at 5:09

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