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I'm curious what strategies people have found effective for teaching operations with integers, specifically addition and subtraction. I've used number lines and zero pairs (drawings and two-colored counters). Is there a specific order that would be better when introducing multiple strategies?

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    $\begingroup$ You might check out: Karp et al. (2011). Developing Essential Understanding of Addition and Subtraction for Teaching Mathematics in Pre-K-Grade 2. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. $\endgroup$ Sep 5, 2014 at 5:10

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The age matters. I use money (including debt), temperature, and sometimes height (above or below ground) with my community college students. James Tanton has a metaphor with sand piles and holes in the sand.

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