As long as the course is somehow standard, which is the case in the example, one can ask colleagues what they teach in such a course and/or one can try to find similar courses on the internet; many individuals and institutions have a lot of information on their courses available on the internet.
Some care is needed however to judge if the context is really similar, not to have found oranges while actually needing apples. This is especially true regarding prerequisites (and in particular for a course on algebraic geometry; it should make a difference if the students know some commutative algebra or not). In this vein, it also might only help that much having taken such a class oneself (except if the context was also very similar).
It is also not unlikely there is some specification of the content in the curriculum; though sometimes what is written in such documents is more a description of an 'ideal world' so it is not clear what is written there is really achievable. And, if there is not you are more flexible.
If the course is not standard it typically will also not be a very rigid (and chances are one is an expert in the field). In this case one might only start with a very rough plan, and just make the thing up as one moves along (from one week to the next). There is a risk in this that one gets of track, but then as discussed in How do you fix a broken course plan? this risk also exists if one has a clear plan.