A large portion of 4-year university mathematics jobs are advertised on mathjobs.org.
Is there a similar, centralized location for secondary education mathematics jobs? If not, what are the standard techniques to use in such a job search?
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There are some good websites for specific states (e.g., edjoing.org for California and expanding to a few more states next school year. You can just find them through googling) but I never came across to a national secondary education mathematics jobs website (probably the closest website is indeed.com, which is more like a meta-search engine for job postings) . I think it is because of moving between states is not that easy once you have a teaching credential from one state (it usually requires you to retake some classes and reapply through the state department of education) and such a website will not be very functional (especially for the hiring school district).
Given the unique landscape of US secondary education (i.e., independent school districts that can do whatever they want), I would expect every school district to advertise jobs differently and to have different recruitment procedures. In my experience, my current school district (a medium California central valley USD) puts all qualified applicants into a pool from where principals can start interviewing. My previous school district (a large Southern California USD) had the same procedures but, if you wanted a job, your best option was to contact directly a school with an opening and talk with the principal before going thorough HR. I also applied to a small school district which was accepting only paper application and the opening were just posted in the job bulletin board at the district office.
In Alabama, all public school jobs for Elementary, Middle, and High Schools are posted on Teach in Alabama located on the Alabama State Department of Education website. There is also a website/organization designed to certify people interested in teaching who already have a degree in an area of study called Teach for America, at teachforamerica.org. For other teaching avenues, such a private schools. Those are usually posted on the schools website, or can be found on indeed.com.