It is well recognized that learning number names is not an easy task for native English speaking children. For example, the number name for "11" should be learned quite independently from the name of previous numbers, rather than as "ten-one" like in Chinese and a number of other languages. The latter is not only easier to remember but also goes better with the idea of place value. Indeed as Iranian, I could explain the situation just using examples from different region of Iran. Children has to learn "national" language (Farsi) when they start school at the age of 7. The structure of number names in Farsi is more or less like English (even a bit worse). Thus, learning number names is not an easy task for Iranian children in general, and even harder for Iranian Turk children whom the language they grow up with (Turkish) has a different (and better) structure for number names (e.g., "11" is "ten-one").
Let us move beyond early number learning. Years later, one of the algebraic problems of the national mathematics textbook is the following:
Express in words: $(a+b)^2$
Hard for children in general, harder for Iranian Turks. In Farsi, it reads the same as for the reader of this post, outside operation first, inside operation second: "square of the sum of two numbers". For Iranian Turks, it reads the other way around, inside operation first, outside operation second, something like: "the sum of two numbers to the power of 2". Not wrong, but not what is expected from them.
Do you know any other examples in which the structure of native language of students is in conflict with the structure of language of mathematics that they are expected to learn?