Some crazy mathematicians have managed to calculate the missing centre of the Escher artwork below.
Go to their website to learn all about it.
They have some pretty cool animations of it.
Also, this article gives a pretty good overview of the project.
Here is a link to a paper about Escher and symmetry.
Henderson & Taimina (2006) point out that models in hyperbolic geometry are aesthetically compelling, and that the artist M. C. Escher made us of this in a representation of infinity within his works:
Repeating patterns on the sphere have an aesthetic appeal through
their simplicity and finiteness. However, in these various hyperbolic
models, the ...
Salvador Dali's 1954 Crucifixion (Corpus Hypercubus) "deviates from traditional portrayals of the Crucifixion by depicting Christ on the polyhedron net of a hypercube [...]." It could be used to introduce the idea of a fourth spatial dimension.
From the Wikipedia entry:
Instead of painting Christ on a wooden cross, Dalí depicts him upon the net of a ...
MAA has a special interest group devoted to mathematics and the arts. Here is the link to its web page which includes galleries and resources:
AMS sponsors an exhibit of mathematical art at the Joint Mathematical Meetings and here is a link for that and related things:
There is also ...
Since this question has been bumped up, I recently learned (via an AMS tweet) about the work done by Crockett Johnson -- best known as the creator and illustrator of Harold and the Purple Crayon -- at the intersection of "artistic works" and mathematics.
More information can be found in the write-up from Atlas Obscura; here are two sample excerpts, along ...
In addition to Needham's famous book mentioned in Gerald Edgar's answer, there is
Visual Complex Functions: An Introduction with Phase Portraits by Elias Wegert.
The book is richly illustrated with colour diagrams of complex functions, especially the "phase portraits" mentioned in the title, as can be seen on the author's website for the book.
Popular fractal images (paisley looking things.)
Also this is maybe more applied math or data science, but a lot of the Edward Tufte book images are compelling.