Kevin Arlin already gave my "best" answer in All of Statistics. That said, statistics is a large topic. If you're looking specifically at inference and statistical learning and want a rigorous exposition of most of the different methodologies used I would recommend Elements of Statistical Learning, although it assumes a heavier mathematics ...
Here is a lit review of US math elementary textbooks evolution:
Realistically your question is so broad that I think you need to learn more before you can even ask the right questions. But maybe this will get you thinking.
For example, I would think about restricting your scope to two to three countries ...
As a student of mathematics taking a statistics course next semester, I have been plagued with this problem. I have found a solution in "Lectures on Probability Theory and Mathematical Statistics" by Marco Taboga, which is a collection of many lectures and exercises from the website https://www.statlect.com/.