Can anyone recommend a textbook for an introduction-to-proofs bridge course that discusses the rules for "proving and using" (aka "introduction and elimination") each connective and quantifier, as in type theory or natural deduction? All the books I've looked at so far either explain the connectives using truth tables, or don't explain them specifically at all. They often discuss some of the rules (like "direct proof" = implies-intro and "proof by cases" = or-intro and "constructive proof" = exists-intro), but usually just in a list of "proof methods" without an organizing structure.

(To clarify, I'm not looking for a textbook in formal logic. I know that some people use textbooks in formal logic for bridge courses, but I don't think that would be appropriate for my students. I want a textbook which introduces students to the idea of proof, to basic concepts in mathematics like induction, divisibility, and sets, and to other aspects of mathematics like mathematical writing and exploration / proof search. There are lots of such textbooks, but I haven't found one yet that organizes the proof rules by their governing connectives as above.)

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    $\begingroup$ Have you looked at How to Prove It by Daniel Velleman? I bought the book my senior year of high-school and I believe it introduced me to advanced math pretty well. An entire chapter is devoted to proof strategies and different kinds of proofs. $\endgroup$ Nov 23, 2014 at 4:42
  • $\begingroup$ @AndreyKaipov no, I hadn't yet, thanks! His chapter 3 is pretty much exactly what I wanted. If you post that as an answer, I'll accept it. $\endgroup$ Nov 25, 2014 at 23:34
  • $\begingroup$ I've written a text that addresses your needs, I believe; however, it's not available (yet) publicly. How can I share it with you (and others who may be interested)? $\endgroup$ Dec 2, 2014 at 5:18
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    $\begingroup$ @MikeShulman I am writing course notes for a discrete math textbook now, and I may eventually assemble them into a book. If you are interested, take a look at drive.google.com/file/d/10-diAOsR8aC2sIhRqxFzl0WsDDAvC6hx/view and let me know what you think. Constructive criticism is welcome. $\endgroup$ Feb 21, 2021 at 16:12
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    $\begingroup$ @StevenGubkin I wouldn't really use the phrase "weasel out", but I won't object to it either. I would say that $p\to \bot$ is really just the definition of $\neg p$. My paper about linear logic involves notions of "refutation" that are dual to "justification" when discussing semantics, but the rules of proof don't involve separate notions of "proving false" and "proving true". $\endgroup$ Feb 22, 2021 at 0:23

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The book How to Prove It by Daniel Velleman has an entire chapter devoted to the different types of proofs and the strategies on how to approach each one. It's actually the first book my university uses in its "Intro to Advanced Math" course. Even though the book's language tends to be fairly casual and conversational, it does a great job of introducing true mathematics!

  • $\begingroup$ +1. Had DJV as a professor for a couple of classes; he is an excellent teacher, and his other writing (book on philosophy of mathematics, and pretty much all of his papers as found through google scholar) is exceptional. $\endgroup$ Nov 27, 2014 at 4:46
  • $\begingroup$ Bonus points for including 0 as a natural number. (-: $\endgroup$ Nov 27, 2014 at 10:11

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