Your question is twofold:
(1) Did any school districts actual teach the curriculum as planned and (2) what were the results for the teachers and students?
At the moment, I have an answer for (1): Yes.
For (2), the results for teachers and students exist in various forms, but I have not combed through them carefully. And so your second question is certainly tractable, though I do not know the answer.
To find out about your query, I passed it on to Henry Pollak since (quoting from the aforelinked):
Pollak was heavily involved with the School Mathematics Study Group (SMSG), an attempt to improve primary and secondary American mathematics education. Invited by Edward Begle and Albert Tucker, he participated in the initial four-week writing session of the SMSG, creating new curriculum (1958-60). He later was a member of the SMSG advisory board (1961-64, 1967-72) and its chairman (1963-64).
The take-away seems to be that, yes, the curriculum was taught in some places, and assessments of its creation and implementation were carried out by ETS, the Minnesota National Laboratory, the NSF, and SMSG itself. (Note: You may be interested in consulting Phillips' The New Math: A Political History; google books begins its preview with Chapter 5.)
You can find an example of an SMSG report (funded by the NSF) from 1959 here; please note that there are many such documents (cf. the archive at U of Texas Austin here) and some are quite long. (More precisely: I have not read through them in granular detail, so I am confident that a more informative response than mine can be posted to answer your question.)
I paste below Pollak's response, since it draws from his first-hand experience, and I am sure its availability on MESE is more valuable than confining it to my inbox!
The work on SMSG started in the summer of 1958. I was a member of the team writing the first course on algebra and did not become a member of the overall advisory board for the project until about 1962. But I have both written materials and recollections relevant to your questions, both of them incomplete and full of gaps. In summary, there was an enormous amount of teaching (1) to provide formative evaluation for revisions, (2) to carry out major evaluations, by both Educational Testing Service and the Minnesota National Laboratory, and (3) to allow schools and teachers to use the materials. I have recollection that experimental teaching began immediately, and proof of careful testing for both the National Science Foundation and SMSG itself first carried out no later than 1959. The preparation by school districts for adopting the materials was highly variable, and [the emailed question] itself provides an example.
Let me note parenthetically that UICSM, the University of Illinois Committee(?) on School Mathematics, which began around 1956, so at least two years earlier, initially required a full year of training at Urbana of any teacher wishing to teach its materials.
I have summaries of both the ETS and the Minnesota evaluations published in 1961, but I do not own the full reports themselves. I have further evaluation summaries from 1963. I have summaries of state-by-state programs for in-service teachers from 1964 from 23 states. Kansas is not one of them.
People still active who may have more information and copies of evaluations from the 1960's are Jeremy Kilpatrick and Jim Wilson, both at the University of Georgia (but possibly retired).
(I am not sure how one would obtain the full reports alluded to above; it is possible that they already exist in a digitized form, or are somewhere in the Briscoe Center archives. Hopefully another MESE user can fill in more details.)